diabetes) or habits (e.g. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment. Risk factors are not the etiology of the disease, but play a role in determining who may potentially develop the disease. Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (NUP) is where the infection leads to attachment loss, and involves only the gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar ligament. Periodontal disease is considered a disease of the poor. Hormonal changes (sometimes caused by pregnancy or menopause) 2. Treatment can be both nonsurgical and surgical, depending on the severity of the problem.If these five concepts can form the core competency of the hygiene center of your practice today, your office and your patients will benefit immediately. Because of this relationship, periodontitis is now a risk factor for certain systemic illnesses. According to the CDC, periodontal disease increased with age. A baseline full mouth series of radiographs is required to evaluate bone levels of the dentition.Understanding who is at risk for periodontitis is also important and beneficial to the patient. Implants in function for a significant number years can develop peri-implantitis. Main text: Inflammation of the gingiva appears to be a normal and physiological response to the presence of commensal bacteria along the gingival crevice and in the dental biofilm. “Smoking is one of the most significant risk factors associated with the development of periodontal disease and the disease increase with the number of cigarettes per day” (Kachlany 44). Recent studies have revealed several potentially important periodontal risk … Patients genetically susceptible to gum disease may experience periodontal health problems even if they have good oral hygiene habits. Genetic causes are also linked with some rare early onset types of periodontal diseases in younger age patients with otherwise good oral health. Periodontal disease may affect the host’s susceptibility to systemic disease through sungingival plaque acting as reservoirs of Gram –ve bacteria transient bacteremia release of microbial toxins & … To prevent Disease smoking (Box 3-2), poor oral hygiene compliance. Periodontal disease is considered a disease of the poor. Our patients need to be educated on what periodontitis is and the associated risk factors for the disease. Both are initiated by plaque and are influenced by the immune and inflammatory responses of each individual. Learn more about our commitment to oral health education. Genetics 3. in over 80% of patients with periodontal disease there is also at least one or more of the other predisposing risk factors. Now that you’ve learned about predisposing factors in detail, we will now move on and discuss two other equally-important factors that contribute to the development of Periodontal Gum Disease – risk and modifying factors. ... Current view of risk factors for periodontal diseases. A diet rich in sugars or acids can provide the suitable environment for bacterial overgrowth, promoting gum disease. What triggers gum disease? Copyright 2010-2017 DentalDiseases.org. The first is peri-implant mucositis, which is gingival inflammation with no bone loss around the implant. Not taking proper care of your teeth and mouth is the most common reason of developing the gum disease. Yes, Certain systemic or acquired risk factors are possible to control or eliminate if the patient is willing to do so. The inflammatory and metabolic states of the periodontal tissues are driven by the infectious stimuli, and the magnitude of the cellular and molecular signature response is further dictated by the host genetic and epigenetic traits associated with various systemic exposures, including smoking, obesity and diabetes/hyperglycemia. Poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease may promote oropharyngeal colonization by potential respiratory pathogens (PRPs) including Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter species, etc. Stress makes it harder for the body to fight off infection and this is also a factor contributing to periodontal disease. Clenching or grinding teeth can put the supporting tissues of the teeth under excessive force, damaging the periodontal ligament structures. Among the most common are: heredity, smoking, diabetes, stress, medication, nutrition, poor oral hygiene, faulty dentistry, hormonal variations, immunocompromise, connective tissue diseases, and previous history of active perio disease. Another common gums problem during pregnancy are the so called ‘pregnancy tumors’, large red lumps formed on inflamed gum tissue near the gum line. As already stated, the non-modifiable risk factors are also referred to as risk determinants. Therefore it is important for professionals to be aware of the latest research and keep patients informed. Journal of Periodontology 2000;71:1874–1881. Female hormonal changes, such as with pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives Periodontal disease is considered a disease of the poor. Obesity 8. Why is periodontal risk assessment important for comprehensive patient care? Combined with an existing gum disease problem, teeth grinding and clenching can cause the faster destruction of periodontal tissues. There are two diseases that have been identified around functioning dental implants in the oral cavity. Fillings that have become defective 9. The Two-way Relationship Between Diabetes and Periodontal Disease. Socioeconomic Factors. Any rise in the female hormones level makes women during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy and those using oral contraceptives more susceptible to gum diseases. Modifiable risk factors are usually environmental or behavioral in nature, whereas non-modifiable risk factors are usually intrinsic to the individual and therefore can not be easily changed. Dry mouth helps bacterial growth by increasing the level of mouth’s pH due to reduced flow of saliva that plays a regulatory role. Combined with an existing gum disease problem, teeth grinding and clenching can cause the faster destruction of periodontal tissues. Conditions that cause decreased immunity, such as leukemia, HIV/AIDS and cancer treatment 12. Many risk factors increase the likelihood of periodontal disease development, as well as the severity and speed at which it may occur. Systemic risk factors and risk indicators for periodontal disease • Systemic risk factors include smoking, diabetes mellitus, race, genetic factors, male gender, polymorphonuclear (PMN) functional abnormalities, low economic status, low educational level, acquired systemic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and severe malnutrition ( Table 11.1 ). In one study, periodontal pathogens were present in 1-year olds in 83% of preterm infants and in 96% of full-term infants. Emotional stress may have negative effects on immune system, increasing the potential of a bacterial infection to develop and cause periodontal disease. Gingivitis is highly prevalent in both the adolescent and adult patients. Hormonal changes, such as those related to pregnancy or menopause 6. This article is intended to promote understanding of and knowledge about general oral health topics. Crooked teeth 7. drug therapies (see Box 3-1). The risk factors for periodontal diseases can be classified broadly into two categories: modifiable risk factors and non-modifiable risk factors. are the main causes of gum disease, Smoking or chewing tobacco 7. Underlying immuno-deficiencies—e.g., AIDS 8. Always seek the advice of your dentist or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or treatment. Inadequate nutrition, including vitamin C deficiency 9. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled diabetes Type 2 increases the risk by 2.75 times. A periodontal exam and assessment of both new and current patients in the dental practice is more important than ever. Periodontal Disease Status and Associated Risk Factors in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia Javascript is currently disabled in your browser. Periodontal disease (PD) encompasses both gingivitis and periodontitis. Again, these factors are systemic factors that are either a medical problem or a behavioral condition. To establish a factor as a risk factor or determinant for periodontal disease, the evidence … This preventive care approach has been clinically shown to work. Inadequate nutrition 4. Our patients need to be educated on what periodontitis is and the associated risk factors for the disease. Other illnesses being evaluated for possible connections include pancreatic cancer, pulmonary disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Factors that can increase your risk of periodontitis include: 1. Risk Factors for developing Periodontal Disease, Bridges that no longer fit properly trap food debris and allow dental plaque to accumulate and grow between the crown and gums, Malocclusion - Crooked teeth make difficult the removal of dental plaque. Substance abuse 5. All rights reserved. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The triggering factors of periodontal disease are enlisted as: Poor dental hygiene . Ask the Colgate Chatbot! In order to be acquired a representative study sample the study population was stratified by age and gender. J Periodontol 1994; 65:521–529. 47 Putative periodontal pathogens may spread between family members 54 which could explain how colonization by periodontal pathogens in early childhood occurs in a larger proportion than previously reported. This may be caused by major life events or daily minor hassles (LeResche and Dworkin 2002). Certain medications that cause dry mouth or gum changes 11. Start studying Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease. Several features of this site will not function whilst javascript is disabled. ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Obesity. Behavioural risk factors, e.g. Almost half of all adults over 30 have some form of periodontal disease, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which also warns that certain risks can predispose you to or influence the severity of the disease… smoking) even if they may have a confounding effect on the disease. Low income population, ethnic minorities and the elderly show the higher incidence of gum disease, However, age is only one of the risk factors of periodontal disease. Diabetes 3. Stress also is a risk factor for periodontal disease. These factors can increase your risk of periodontal disease or make it worse once the infection has set in. to conventional treatments for gum disease such as tooth scaling and root planning or gum surgery treatments. [3][4] [5] Social and behavioral factors include cigarette smoking, socioeconomic status, nutritional status, psychological factors and excessive alcohol consumption. Home care remains to be extremely important and patients can be referred to the Colgate website for the latest information on oral hygiene products that are effective in maintaining good oral health. Risk Factors for Periodontal Disease. functional impairments and change in financial status. Smoking or chewing tobacco 4. Therefore such a plan could involve stopping smoking, changing medications, dietary and oral hygiene habits, correcting faulty restorations or treating malocclusion, in addition Systemic conditions associated with immunodeficiency state such as neutropenia, AIDS/HIV infections are also important risk factors. The second is inflammation with suppuration (pus) and progressive bone loss. Smoking 2. Systemic risk factors include poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and tobacco smoking. It has been long known that diabetes mellitus, both type 1 and type 2, are risk factors for periodontal disease. J Periodontol 1996;67:1041-9. Alpagot T, Wolff LF, Smith QT, Trao SD. Predisposing factors include psychological stress, sleep deprivation, poor oral hygiene, smoking, immunosuppression and/or malnutrition. A periodontal exam and assessment of both new and current patients in the dental practice is more important than ever. Cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking as risk factors for periodontal disease and tooth loss. Socioeconomic Factors. The risk factors for developing these diseases are prior history of periodontitis, poor oral hygiene, smoking, diabetes, implant cement beyond the margin of the crown, occlusal overload and genetic factors. Certain factors increase the risk for periodontal disease: 1. by either contributing to the formation of bacterial plaque or/and by reducing the body’s ability to respond to bacterial infections. © YYYY Colgate-Palmolive Company. The inflammation of the gums in combination with poor oral hygiene can cause severe periodontal disease. Older age 5. Risk indicators for periodontal disease in a racially diverse urban population. The gums become so loose that the outer layers can be easily rubbed away. Life style risk factors, e.g. A simple questionnaire or assessment can provide this information and educate the patient on potential oral health care issues. 10 A systematic review of the effects of periodontal disease on diabetes was recently published 3 which summarizes evidence for the two-way relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes. mainly due to lack of access to dental health care and dental insurance. Menopause is linked to a painful condition called desquamative gingivitis, where the outer layers of the gums separate from the underlying tissue, exposing nerve endings. It has been reported that up to 35 percent of implant patients can have periodontal issues around their implants. Research demonstrates that stress can make it more difficult for the body to fight off infection, including periodontal diseases. In addition, PD is modified by several risk factors including smoking, medications, alcohol, age, gender and systemic diseases. The most studied are the following health issues: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and pregnancy complications. Implants have been a significant clinical advancement for our patients. Information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about the causes of periodontal disease, its warning signs, risk factors, and prevention and treatment. Several conditions can increase the susceptibility to periodontal disease, Poor oral health habits 6. There are five key concepts that an oral health provider should know about periodontitis risk factors. The best way to identify a periodontal condition in a patient is still through periodontal probing and pocket depth measurements and evaluation for recession, bleeding and mobility. While poor oral hygiene and the overgrowth of certain types of harmful bacteria Genetics 10. MedlinePlus: Gum Disease The NIH National Library of Medicine's collection of links to government, professional, and non-profit/voluntary organizations with information on periodontal disease and gingivitis. Other factors increasing the risk of developing periodontal disease: pattern by genetic and acquired risk factors such as systemic disease (e.g. Acquired immune suppression and other risk factors/indicators for periodontal disease progression. stress. Taking medications that cause dry mouth 10. Mouth breathing can cause dry mouth increasing the risk of gum disease. mechanisms and some are acquired via environmental factors or lifestyle. The first concept is that the prevalence of the two major periodontal diseases is still high in the United States population. Patients need to be aware that if they have periodontitis which can be effectively treated and if they do not have the disease, it can be prevented. Diseases such as rheumatoid … Any plan for the prevention or treatment of periodontal diseases should target to eliminate or control as many risk factors and causes of gum disease as possible. However like natural teeth, they can also develop periodontal conditions. Stress is linked to many serious conditions such as hypertension, cancer, and numerous other health problems. It is important that we identify who is at risk for the disease and who presents to our offices with the disease, not only to prevent tooth loss in our patients because there is now enough evidence that shows a connection between systemic disease and periodontitis. Environmental risk factors, e.g. Thus, a sample of 1,850 individuals, 938 males and 912 females aged 49 to 80 years was invited to participate. Poor oral hygiene due to morning sickness, and increased vomiting that irritates gums can further worsen the problem. Other risk factors include: 1. Have questions about your smile? Poor oral hygiene 4. Obesity could be a potential risk factor for periodontal disease especially among younger individuals. A diet low in important nutrients can reduce the ability of the immune system to fight infections, therefore making it easier for dental plaque to cause gum disease. Health conditions that decrease your immunity 9. High levels of progesterone increase the blood flow and fluid retention of the gingival tissues causing swelling, irritation and tenderness of the gums. These hereditary causes of gum disease involve several immune system defects that reduce the body’s ability to fight the anaerobic bacteria responsible for causing plaque and periodontal disease. The most studied factors are the following: smoking, diabetes, poor oral hygiene, obesity and osteoporosis. Stress 5. Gingivitis 2. Certain medications 8. Patients at risk should be seen a minimum of at least once a year if they have no periodontal disease. Bridges that no longer fit properly 11. Other dental problems. Barros SP, Offenbacher S. Epigenetics as a modifiable risk factor in periodontal diseases has been investigated in light of the current knowledge of how chronic infection and inflammation can affect gene-specific epigenetic reprogramming in periodontal tissues. Substance abuse 7. Obesity could be a potential risk factor for periodontal disease especially among younger individuals. Colgate Reaches Children in Need Across the Globe With the Power of a Bright Smile. Heredity 6. The tissue will show redness, swelling and bleeding. There are five key concepts that an oral health provider should know about periodontitis risk factors. Poor oral health habits 3. Author information: (1)Department of Peiodontics Baylor College of Dentistry Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Dallas, Texas, USA. Other factors increasing the risk of developing periodontal disease: Risk factors that may make older people more susceptible include general health status, diminished immune status, medications, depression, worsening memory, decreased salivary flow, Patients with periodontal disease, even if effectively treated in the past, must be seen a minimum of twice a year if not more. All rights reserved. In fact, 70.1% of adults65 years and older have periodontal disease. The information contained in the DentalDiseases.org Site, such as text, images, and other material is provided for informational purposes only. A more advanced disease of periodontitis, which is chronic inflammation and bone loss can be found to one extent or another in potentially up to 50 percent of the population over 35. In presence of any of these risk factors, extra care must be taken including careful oral hygiene and regular dental visits in order to avoid the development of periodontal diseases. Identification through genetic testing that a patient is in this high risk group should be followed by early interventive treatment to help them keep their teeth. Risk for peri‐implantitis is increased by long‐term use of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (3.2 ×), bisphosphonates (2.69 ×) and SSRIs (6.28 ×), as well as alcohol use (> 5 units per day; 2.3 ×). The most common risk factors for developing gum disease are: Several studies indicate that may persons have a predisposal to gum disease. Fortunately, it is a modifiable risk factor unlike age, sex and genetic factors. While a large body of data implicates neutrophil dysfunction, either intrinsic or acquired (bacterially or extrinsically induced), as a significant risk factor for the periodontal diseases, clear, prospective, longitudinal epidemiologic studies to evaluate this association remain to be performed. Stanford TW(1), Rees TD. 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